Reprinted from The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Website
Editing and Proofreading
What this post is about
This post provides some tips and strategies for revising your writing. To give you a chance to practice proofreading, we have left seven errors (three spelling errors, two punctuation errors, and two grammatical errors) in the text of this post. See if you can spot them!
Is editing the same thing as proofreading?
Not exactly. Although many people use the terms interchangeably, editing and proofreading are two different stages of the revision process. Both demand close and careful reading, but they focus on different aspects of the writing and employ different techniques.
Some tips that apply to both editing and proofreading
- Get some distance from the text! It’s hard to edit or proofread a manuscript that you’ve just finished writing—it’s still to familiar, and you tend to skip over a lot of errors. Put the manuscript aside for a few hours, days, or weeks. Go for a run. Take a trip to the beach. Clear your head of what you’ve written so you can take a fresh look at the manuscript and see what is really on the pages. Better yet, give the manuscript to a friend—you can’t get much more distance than that. Someone who is reading the manuscript for the first time, comes to it with completely fresh eyes.
- Decide what medium lets you proofread most carefully. Some people like to work right at the computer, while others like to sit back with a printed copy that they can mark up as they read.
- Try changing the look of your document. Altering the size, spacing, color, or style of the text may trick your brain into thinking it’s seeing an unfamiliar document, and that can help you get a different perspective on what you’ve written.
- Find a quiet place to work. Don’t try to do your proofreading in front of the TV or while you’re chugging away on the treadmill. Find a place where you can concentrate and avoid distractions.
- If possible, do your editing and proofreading in several short blocks of time. Your concentration may start to wane if you try to proofread the entire text at one time.
- If you’re short on time, you may wish to prioritize. Make sure that you complete the most important editing and proofreading tasks.
Editing is what you begin doing as soon as you finish your first draft. You reread your draft to see, for example, whether the manuscript is well-organized, the transitions between paragraphs are smooth, and your evidence really backs up your argument. You can edit on several levels:
Have you done everything required to write a good story? Are the characters well-developed and is the action dynamic? If required to do so, does your manuscript make a statement or point? Does the action flow smoothly from one scene to the next? Does the story move logically from opening to the conclusion? Is your writing consistent and clear? Have you supported each point with adequate detail? Is all the information in your manuscript relevant to the story and its theme?
Does your manuscript have an appropriate introduction and conclusion? Is your overall idea clearly stated in your introduction? Is it clear how each scene in the manuscript related to your story? Are the paragraphs and chapters arranged in a logical sequence? Have you made clear transitions between paragraphs and chapters?
Structure within chapters
Does each chapter have a clear topic relevance to the overall work? Does each chapter stick to one main idea? Are there any extraneous or missing sentences in any of your chapters?
Have you defined any important terms that might be unclear to your reader? Is the meaning of each sentence clear? (One way to answer this question is to read your paper one sentence at a time, starting at the end and working backwards so that you will not unconsciously fill in content from previous sentences.) Is it clear what each pronoun (he, she, it, they, which, who, this, etc.) refers to? Have you chosen the proper words to express your ideas? Avoid using words you find in the thesaurus that aren’t part of your normal vocabulary; you may misuse them.
Have you used an appropriate tone (formal, informal, persuasive, etc.)? Is your use of gendered language (masculine and feminine pronouns like “he” or “she,” words like “fireman” that contain “man,” and words that some people incorrectly assume apply to only one gender—for example, some people assume “nurse” must refer to a woman) appropriate? Have you varied the length and structure of your sentences? Do you tends to use the passive voice too often? Does your writing contain a lot of unnecessary phrases like “there is,” “there are,” “due to the fact that,” etc.? Do you repeat a strong word (for example, a vivid main verb) unnecessarily?
Have you appropriately cited quotes, paraphrases, and ideas you got from sources? Are your citations in the correct format?
As you edit at all of these levels, you will usually make significant revisions to the content and wording of your manuscript. Keep an eye out for patterns of error; knowing what kinds of problems you tend to have will be helpful, especially if you are editing a large document. Once you have identified a pattern, you can develop techniques for spotting and correcting future instances of that pattern. For example, if you notice that you often discuss several distinct topics in each paragraph, you can go through your manuscript and underline the key words in each paragraph, then break the paragraphs up so that each one focuses on just one main idea.
Proofreading is the final stage of the editing process, focusing on surface errors such as misspellings and mistakes in grammar and punctuation. You should proofread only after you have finished all of your other editing revisions.
Why proofread? It’s the content that really matters, right?
Content is important. But like it or not, the way a manuscript looks affects the way others judge it. When you’ve worked hard to develop and present your ideas, you don’t want careless errors distracting your reader from what you have to say. It’s worth paying attention to the details that help you to make a good impression.
Most people devote only a few minutes to proofreading, hoping to catch any glaring errors that jump out from the pages. But a quick and cursory reading, especially after you’ve been working long and hard on a paper, usually misses a lot. It’s better to work with a definite plan that helps you to search systematically for specific kinds of errors.
Sure, this takes a little extra time, but it pays off in the end. If you know that you have an effective way to catch errors when the paper is almost finished, you can worry less about editing while you are writing your first drafts. This makes the entire writing proccess more efficient.
Try to keep the editing and proofreading processes separate. When you are editing an early draft, you don’t want to be bothered with thinking about punctuation, grammar, and spelling. If your worrying about the spelling of a word or the placement of a comma, you’re not focusing on the more important task of developing and connecting ideas.
The proofreading process
You probably already use some of the strategies discussed below. Experiment with different tactics until you find a system that works well for you. The important thing is to make the process systematic and focused so that you catch as many errors as possible in the least amount of time.
- Don’t rely entirely on spelling checkers. These can be useful tools but they are far from foolproof. Spell checkers have a limited dictionary, so some words that show up as misspelled may really just not be in their memory. In addition, spell checkers will not catch misspellings that form another valid word. For example, if you type “your” instead of “you’re,” “to” instead of “too,” or “there” instead of “their,” the spell checker won’t catch the error.
- Grammar checkers can be even more problematic. These programs work with a limited number of rules, so they can’t identify every error and often make mistakes. They also fail to give thorough explanations to help you understand why a sentence should be revised. You may want to use a grammar checker to help you identify potential run-on sentences or too-frequent use of the passive voice, but you need to be able to evaluate the feedback it provides.
- Proofread for only one kind of error at a time. If you try to identify and revise too many things at once, you risk losing focus, and your proofreading will be less effective. It’s easier to catch grammar errors if you aren’t checking punctuation and spelling at the same time. In addition, some of the techniques that work well for spotting one kind of mistake won’t catch others.
- Read slow, and read every word. Try reading out loud, which forces you to say each word and also lets you hear how the words sound together. When you read silently or too quickly, you may skip over errors or make unconscious corrections.
- Separate the text into individual sentences. This is another technique to help you to read every sentence carefully. Simply press the return key after every period so that every line begins a new sentence. Then read each sentence separately, looking for grammar, punctuation, or spelling errors. If you’re working with a printed copy, try using an opaque object like a ruler or a piece of paper to isolate the line you’re working on.
- Circle every punctuation mark. This forces you to look at each one. As you circle, ask yourself if the punctuation is correct.
- Read the paper backwards. This technique is helpful for checking spelling. Start with the last word on the last page and work your way back to the beginning, reading each word separately. Because content, punctuation, and grammar won’t make any sense, your focus will be entirely on the spelling of each word. You can also read backwards sentence by sentence to check grammar; this will help you avoid becoming distracted by content issues.
- Proofreading is a learning process. You’re not just looking for errors that you recognize; you’re also learning to recognize and correct new errors. This is where handbooks and dictionaries come in. Keep the ones you find helpful close at hand as you proofread.
- Ignorance may be bliss, but it won’t make you a better proofreader. You’ll often find things that don’t seem quite right to you, but you may not be quite sure what’s wrong either. A word looks like it might be misspelled, but the spell checker didn’t catch it. You think you need a comma between two words, but you’re not sure why. Should you use “that” instead of “which”? If you’re not sure about something, look it up.
- The proofreading process becomes more efficient as you develop and practice a systematic strategy. You’ll learn to identify the specific areas of your own writing that need careful attention, and knowing that you have a sound method for finding errors will help you to focus more on developing your ideas while you are drafting the paper.
Think you’ve got it?
Then give it a try. This handout contains seven errors—maybe you already spotted them—which our proofreader should have caught: three spelling errors, two punctuation errors, and two grammatical errors. Try to find them, and then check a version of this page with the errors marked in red to see if you’re a proofreading star.
Welcome to Rumpelstiltskin Editorial Services!
If you are here, there’s a good chance that you have recently finished (or will soon finish) writing your book. Admittedly, it is a nagging and sometimes unpleasant part of the process for all parties involved, as editing books is sometimes as trying for editors as it is for authors.
But we have to face reality. No one on Earth is capable of writing a book that does not require some degree of editing, so now one of three things is going to happen:
1) Once you have finished the book, you are going to have to get someone else to read it, whether it be a friend or spouse or former English professor. You are no longer a good judge, as you’ve read your manuscript perhaps hundreds of times in the process of writing and revising. So even as brilliant as you are, you have to realize that your work would benefit by being reviewed by a fresh mind and a fresh set of eyes—to lend a fresh perspective.
If your reader/friend/beta testing group is thorough, you will be rewarded with a critique that addresses various areas of manuscript concern, from the general to the specific. Is the story interesting and believable? Do the characters feel real? Does the action stall in places? Is the manuscript clean and free of errors? Are there instances of bad writing habits that will distract readers? Does the dialogue ring natural in the ears? Is the narrative creative and engaging?
While criticism, if it is honest, can sometimes be brutal and discouraging, you will have to humble yourself and strive to carefully consider the critiques, comments and suggestions you receive. Your focus should be on the manuscript itself and making it the best it can be. And finally, when it is done, you would do well to get a second reader/friend/beta group to go over it get yet another perspective prior to submitting it for publication.
2) Once you have finished the book, you are going to hire a professional copy editor or proofreader to work on the manuscript to make it ready for submission. We hope, for your sake, this professional will provide you an inexpensive editorial assessment prior to beginning any work on your manuscript.
Prior to commencement of any editorial work, you should have a good idea about what this professional is going to do to improve your manuscript, in specific detail. Determine if the work involves mere copy editing, or if there are significant issues with the story or the writing. Will the work involve eliminating specific problem writing habits or plot development? Is there a concern with your characters or dialogue? Whatever the assessment provides, ask the copy editor or editorial professional to enumerate the tasks to be performed and to demonstrate it on five or ten pages of your manuscript. In this way, you can determine how much value of the proposed editing will provide to your work.
Editorial services can be expensive, and not all providers who claim to be editors are true professionals. Ask other writers or instructors for referrals before seeking an editorial service provider on the Internet, and once you have found one, always check references. And finally, once a price is quoted, never pay the balance in full. The industry standard is 50% down at the commencement of editing, with the balance paid upon completion.
3) Once you have finished the book, you are going to work with Rumpelstiltskin Editorial Services to make your manuscript ready for publishing. You will submit your work on the appropriately titled page, along with a synopsis of the work and an author bio (if possible).
Low-Cost Manuscript Assessment ($37.50): This service is provided for authors who want to under if there are significant editorial issues contained in the manuscript. One of our professional copy editors will peruse the entire manuscript, checking to determine if there persistent errors in punctuation, grammar, spelling, subject-verb agreement, sentence fragments, sentence structure and overall readability. This copy editor’s assessment will be presented as a three-page document containing general details and copy editor’s work on the first ten pages of your manuscript. The CEA will give you a basic idea of what work your manuscript might need going forward.
Copy Editor’s Recommendation ($225): If you do not have the money to pay for professional editorial services, and either you or someone you know has a publishing/editing background, you might be better off ordering a CER (Copy Editor’s Recommendation). This will involve the specialized efforts of one of our copy editors, who will spend three hours analyzing your manuscript (focusing on the first fifty pages), highlighting/commenting on writing problems/issues, while providing specific recommendations. This copy editor will provide detailed comments/corrections and recommendations in the following areas:
1) Passive voice – consider this
3) Verb Tense – consider this
4) Writing Habits
5) Adverbs – consider this
6) Writing Habits
7) Grammar and Punctuation – consider this
Taking the recommendation, you or your editorial resource will be able to go through the manuscript, making necessary corrections, and get the manuscript ready for submission at a fraction of the cost you would have paid for the full professional editing service.
Purchase Editorial Services (according to your specific needs): Sometimes a manuscript it fairly clean, and yet there is a single component (or maybe two components, as listed above) that need work. In such a case, you can purchase Component Editing, paying for only the services you need. Notwithstanding, we provide a full-range of editorial services, including Copy Editing, Line Editing, Proofreading, Polish, Consulting, Coaching and Encouragement.
Whatever you decide to do, please take the time to scroll through our site to see what service we may offer you. And if you have a comment, experience or suggestion for us, please share it in the box below.